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Hieronder kunt u uw verzoek toelichten of een vraag stellen. Bedankt voor uw aanvraag Wij nemen zo spoedig mogelijk contact met u op. Download brochure Vult u alstublieft onderstaande gegevens in om onze brochure in PDF-formaat te downloaden. New imagery users are unlikely to be found at many of the professional development activities associated with the highly trained remote sensing experts because they either lack the funds to cover their participation or because they see little direct relevance to their specific uses of imagery data Baker, , p.
Fischer develops a thorough examination of the centrality of expertise to modern society and the political relationship between experts and citizens in the environmental domain. There he argued: In this age of expertise, the question of knowledge and competence cuts across the entire spectrum of political and governmental issues.
For this reason, policy questions today present the complicated task of not only coming to grips with expert analyses of sophisticated technical issues but also understanding how different citizens arrive at their own judgments about such issues, including their understandings of the experts themselves. Moreover, the increasing unwillingness of citizens to accept uncritically the trained judgments of the experts has become one of the central issues of our time.
Indeed…it is one of the primary political dynamics of environmental decision making Fischer, , p. The canonical narrative of imagery interpretation expertise e. Techniques of observation and measurement embed models of social interaction and political structure.
The achievement of German forestry science in standardizing techniques for calculating the sustainable yield of commercial timber and hence revenue was impressive enough. What is decisive for our purposes, however, was the next logical step in forest management. That step was to attempt to create, through careful seeding, planting, and cutting, a forest that was easier for state foresters to count, manipulate, measure, and assess.
As a case in point, Scott argues that the foundations of modern forest management were mutually constitutive with state sovereignty. This provides a useful segue to another keyword: environment. ERS has seen increasing application across the social sciences Liverman and National Research Council, , and has been employed by NGOs focused on arms control, humanitarian crises, and human rights. She is careful, further, to illustrate the diversity of objectives to which these organizations have applied ERS.
In addition to the groundwork of conservation and public outreach on biodiversity issues, this organization has employed ERS imagery in the assessment of biodiversity and monitoring of the U. By framing green urban planning in the instrumental terms often employed by developers, the organization contributes to a knowledge pool and rhetorical arsenal to be used in defense against wanton urban development. At the very least, the Center attempts to emphasize the multiplicity of points of view regarding the utilization of terrestrial and geographic resources CLUI. A clear departure from the more common analytic uses of ERS imagery, CLUI's hybrid communicative mode draws on—but also destabilizes—the authority implicit in aerial imagery.
We provide stunning images backed by scientifically robust information about our changing environment to stimulate changes in habitat protection, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable resource management. We design and conduct our projects in close partnership with environmental groups, local planners and resource managers to complement their work on a broad spectrum of environmental issues. The cases discussed here illustrate two important considerations.
The first lies in the means by which meaning is attributed to ERS imagery. As suggested by the cases above, however, the transdisciplinary utility, commercial availability, and popular circulation of ERS imagery is effecting an expansion of and a shift in their representational status. Instead, the establishment of a record of an appropriate interpretive process should be prioritized and the interpreted aspects of ERS imagery more fully developed as criteria for credibility.
A limitation of that framework, however, is its strong implication of consensus formation and the canonization of knowledge. For many emergent activist communities, identity is built instead upon contingency, polyvocality, and the extended and reflexive articulation of difference. By confronting divergent knowledges with the visible evidence of legitimate disagreement, moreover, the analyst might act to adjudicate, advocate, or negotiate between contending players. The question left unresolved in that struggle: can the model of partial, situated knowledge proffered by imagery activists be developed to the point that its value outweighs or at least balances out the use of ERS as a tool of domination?