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The findings indicate that all the above attributes were markedly reduced by the fungal toxin. Potential for the possible use of the toxin to produce red rot resistant sugarcane genotypes by pathogen toxin induced somaclonal variation is examined. If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:. Effect of Phytotoxin of Colletotrichum falcatum Went. Physalospora tucumanensis on Sugarcane in Tissue Culture. Mohanraj D.

Keywords: Phytotoxins , Phytotoxins , red rot disease , sugarcane , tissue culture. Your Access Options. Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. Forgotten your password? The proceedings were published as a book in The meeting greatly stimulated research on toxins in many countries.

During the ensuing 10 years several reviews were published 53, 55 and a book entitled 'Toxins in Plant Disease' was printed in 17 A considerable number of meetings, discussions and reviews followed. The outcome of a Symposium held at the 4th International Congress of Plant Pathology Melbourne, Australia in gave rise to a book Two volumes of proceedings were published in the first, those of the 'NATO Research Workshop on Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis' held in Italy in , and the second, those of a conference on host-selective phytotoxins held in Japan Tottori University after the 5th International Congress of Plant Pathology Kyoto 27' A selection of books, chapters and review articles on phytotoxins is given at the end of this Introduction.

They offer the reader a wide spectrum of information and show how substantial the progress in the knowledge about phytotoxins has been in recent years. The development of highly sensitive analytical and biological techniques and of new means for structural determination have reduced the time required to separate and purify the active substances, in many cases from years to months, and have permitted structural elucidation using milligrams of material, rather than grams. The first structure of a selective toxin was reported in 49, although this kind of toxin had been known for 40 years Since then, about 20 such host-selective toxins have been recognized for diseases of considerable worldwide importance, and for more than half of them the structure has been elucidated Knowledge of the structures has led, in turn, to the application of advanced methods for the detection of phytotoxins in diseased plant tissues and to biochemical demonstrations of their sites of action, e.

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How toxins act, i. Finally, following the use of traditional approaches to the genetic analysis of toxin production, the powerful and precise technologies of recombinant DNA and other bioengineering methods, in particular transformation and complementation, have been applied to toxin systems, giving some insight into the genetic mechanisms of toxin production. Genes for toxin synthesis or detoxification have been successfully cloned and characterized 1, 27, 36, 38, 51, 73, 74 Resistance of plants to disease is often expressed as tolerance of or insensitivity to the toxins produced by the pathogen.

Some phytotoxins are known to be able to activate metabolic pathways leading to the synthesis of substances involved in plant defence reactions, such as phytoalexins. In this respect, they can act as 'elicitors', causing localized death of plant cells and hypersensitive responses of the host which may restrict growth of the pathogen 6. In other cases, toxins act as 'suppressors' of induced resistance 29, 33 Apart from their obvious importance in the field of plant pathology, where several of them havel been used to establish the molecular basis of disease production 2, s, 11, 36, 39, 59, phytotoxins are useful tools for gaining an understanding of the mode of action of many biologically active substances.

Experimentally, phytotoxins are initially identified by potent pathological effects on susceptible host tissues, in such tissues they affect basic biochemical processes. Sometimes, phytotoxins have also been tested on non-host tissues for effects other than pathological ones.


Thus phytotoxins may have considerable potential as regulators of, or as probes for investigating, the biochemical and genetic processes which occur during normal development of crop species. Their use in plant physiology and to a lesser extent - in microbiological investigations has greatly increased, and sometimes even become routine.

Phytotoxins and their involvement in plant diseases. Introduction

Thanks to the use of certain phytotoxins, our understanding of certain biochemical and physiological processes in plants, such as the functions of membrane receptors and ion pumps, photosynthesis, genetic male sterility, transpiration and stomatal opening, water uptake and translocation of nutrients, has made substantial progress. Although phytotoxins act primarily on plants, their effect may extend beyond the plant kingdom, for example to certain microorganisms or animals. A number of phytotoxins have been reported to be antibiotics or mycotoxins, that is they exhibit antimicrobial activity or, if ingested with contaminated food, may be hazardous for animals and humans 10, 46, 62, As knowledge about the occurrence and range of sensitive organisms expands, utilization of phytotoxins as biocides may become possible.

Botryosphaeria stevensii: pathogenicity on oaks and phytotoxic effects.

Because phytotoxins are biologically active compounds, a variety of applications have been successfully attempted. Currently, phytotoxins are being used as probes for the rapid screening of plant clones or the progeny from crosses for resistance to diseases. In agriculture, certain fungal toxins are considered to be promising agents for the biological control of noxious organisms, for example potential herbicides 16, Eds , Plant Infection.

The Physiological and Biochemical Basis. Japan Sci. Eds , Les phytotoxines microbiennes. Agronomie 4 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg Eds A. Graniti, R.

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Durbin and A. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Experientia 24 APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota Topics in Secondary Metabolism, vol. Elsevier, Amsterdam M, and Deverall, B. Eds , Toxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Academic Press Australia, Sydney W, The chemistry and biology ofpathotoxins exhibiting host-selectivity, in: Advances in Plant Pathology, vol. Eds D. Ingram and P.

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Academic Press, London Eds J. Miyamoto and P. Pergamon Press, New York Ztg 44 Putnam and C. Wiley-lnterscience, New York Academic Press, New York Endeavour 13 Alan R. Liss Inc. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri Reviews 25 Graniti, A.

Eds R. Wood, A. Ballio and A. Academic Press, London, New York Eds K.

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  • Kohmoto and R. Tottori University Press, Tottori, Japan Eds , Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Molecular and Genetic Perspectives, vol. Eds T. Kosuge and E. W Nester. McGraw-Hill Publ. Tottori Univ. W, and Duvick, J. Eds G. E Pegg and P. Ishiyaku-Shuppan, Japan McMillan Publ. Phytopathology 54 W, Molecular genetic approaches to the study of fungal pathogenesis. Science 10 Plenum Press, New York and London A Naito Foundation Symposium, pp.